Best Twitter client for Ubuntu 15.10

Robert Heller heller at
Tue Feb 28 19:20:28 UTC 2017

What *I* do:

I use LVM on my hard drives (RAID mirror set). When *I* upgrade, I create a
fresh Logical Volume for the new root (/) and install there. The old OS is
untouched. I use a separate /boot file system (it is also its own RAID mirror
set). Booting the old os is just a selection from the grub menu. And the old
root file system is available for mounting RO. Non-OS stuff (eg /home, etc.)
are on separate Logical Volumes / file systems.

Oh, and I run the new OS as a VM for awhile before installing it on the bare 
metal, so there are no suprises there (or very few).

And yes, I also run Amanda and backup to a spare hard drive, with a "virtual" 
tape changer.

At Tue, 28 Feb 2017 19:13:16 +0100 "Ubuntu user technical support,  not for general discussions" <ubuntu-users at> wrote:

> On Tue, 28 Feb 2017 16:32:54 +0000, David Fletcher wrote:
> >On Tue, 2017-02-28 at 07:49 -0500, Donald Parsons wrote:
> >> Colin,
> >> The last time I did the upgrade I lost all of my gmail correspondence
> >> and
> >> users.
> >>   
> >
> >I've said it before. No doubt others have said it before. No doubt I
> >will say it again:-
> >Hard drives are incredibly cheap, so never, ever run the risk of
> >trashing a working installation even if it is out of date. Back up all
> >of the files you think you might need to an external flash drive, USB
> >thumb drive(s), SD card(s), whatever you like. Download the latedt
> >version of your new operating system and burn to DVD or whatever your
> >system needs. Put in a new hard drive and install your new OS. Run the
> >updates, reinstate your users, recover your files from the backups you
> >just made. Everybody is happy.
> >When you get that "Oh, SHIT moment, just swap the old hard drive back
> >in, recover the file(s) you missed, go back to the new hard drive.
> >That's why you don't trash the old OS until you're absolutely certain
> >you've recovered everything you need from it.
> >Works for me :)
> DVDs aren't secure backup medias. CDRAM in theory are good, but they
> sometimes don't work, at least they provide not enough space and they
> are much to expensive. Much likely they are hard to get. An external
> USB HDD or just a case with an USB to SATA controller + an SATA drive
> are cheap. The only drawback are that the all-in-one USB drives as well
> as most cases with a controller, ship with a standby mode. Some provide
> firmware to disable the standby mode others don't. The issue with Linux
> is software that wakes up drives that go to sleep by the standby mode.
> GVFS does, smartd does and several other software does, too. Either
> remove this software, or take care that the HDDs don't spin down and up
> every 20 to 30 minutes. The best bet anyway is to disconnect an
> external backup drive after the backup is done. From a live media you
> e.g. could "sudo tar --xattrs -czf" or "sudo cp -ai" all directories.
> I do regular backups to external drives this way and avoid using rsync
> or other methods, but this is just a matter of taste. Some might
> recommend to exclude a few directories, but there's no need to do this,
> since they are anyway more ore less empty after a shutdown. The next
> command after the backup is done shut be "echo $?". If the output
> should be "0" you could ignore all warnings, e.g. "removed leading /"
> or "socket" related warnings. Just if the output of "echo $?"
> shouldn't be "0" something is fishy. In addition you e.g. could run
> "sudo diff -r --no-dereference" after a "sudo cp -ai" and open the
> "tar.gz" archives by a simple click with your favored file manager, to
> check if the backups are ok.
> 0,02 €,
> Ralf

Robert Heller             -- 978-544-6933
Deepwoods Software        -- Custom Software Services  -- Linux Administration Services
heller at       -- Webhosting Services

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