How to create symlink

umair ubuntu umairubuntu at
Thu Sep 28 01:12:09 UTC 2006

Dear nodata thanks for reply and apologies for disturbing you once again.
Actually i m totally new to LINUX plateform and have no programming
I m using ubuntu 6.06.
i have followed the instruction as listed below.But my problem is that i
cant understand  heading 2 (update by richardo chavez) and last heading Using
The Modem i have following problems.

   -  I donot know whether kppp or kate  is installed on mycomputer or
   - If these editors not installed how to install them?
   - how i m going to create file /etc/udev/rules.d/10-local.rules ?
   - whether 10-local.rules is file name or folder name ?
   - when i creat file using gedit and save it as 10-local.rules in
   /etc/udev/rules.d a meesage apperas and says you dont have permission

text below is borrowed from
 PLZ help me
1: Modems supported by the Intel536EP driver

This page describes how to install the driver for the Intel 536EP internal
modem on Ubuntu for i386 systems. Some of these are sold as Cnet modems and
have Ambient chips on board. The process below is quick easy and works quite

The procedure is fairly similar for Ubuntu releases 4.10, 5.04 and 5.10.
There is a minor complication on 5.10, discussed below.


   As of this writing, compilation and usage has been tested on 5.10;
   only compilation has been tested on 5.04 and nothing at all tested on
   4.10. I'll test these when I find the time; if anyone else succeeds
   (or fails), please update this page.

2:Update (2006-Jan-11 - RicardoChavez):

I have an Intel 537EP modem and it worked both on 4.10 and 5.04 using the
drivers from the Intel page. The only drawback was that wvdialconf seemed
not to recognize /dev/modem (it only scanned /dev/ttyS*). My (rather
dangerous) solution was to (backup and) replace one of the /dev/ttyS* with a
symlink to /dev/537 so wvdialconf could recognize it. Besides that, there
were no other inconveniences. Hope this is useful.

There are 4 steps in this howto:


   Install required Ubuntu packages

   Download required files

   Compile the driver

   Install the driver

Install required Ubuntu packages


   Here, ARCH is your kernel flavour, which you can find out by running
   $ uname -r, which should give you something like VERSION-XX-ARCH
   (where ARCH is your kernel flavor, e.g. 386, 686, 686-smp, k7 or
   k7-smp if you use Intel, powerpc for PPC ...).


   You will need to install the build-essential and
linux-headers-ARCHpackages. The packages for somebody using x86 (most
PCs) would thus be:
   build-essential linux-headers-386

   See SynapticHowto <>and
   AptGetHowTo <> for more
   on installing packages.

   *Ubuntu 5.10*

   The procedure for 5.10 is similar; unfortunately, some packages
   necessary for installing the modem driver are not on the Ubuntu
5.10install CD.

   First, install the build-essential and linux-headers-ARCH packages.

   Now, you need also need to install the gcc-3.4 package.

   It is more likely that you cannot connect to the Internet: why would
   you need a modem driver otherwise? In this case, you will need to download
   the 3 files listed below on a system which is connected to the Internet, and
   you'll need to somehow make the files available to your 5.10 system (
   e.g., write the files to a CD or memory stick, or use a shared
   hard-drive partition).

   The files are the Ubuntu package files for gcc-3.4-base, cpp-3.4 and
   gcc-3.4. The appropriate files, at the time of writing, can be found

      [image: [WWW]]<>

      [image: [WWW]]<>

      [image: [WWW]]<>

   Assuming you have downloaded the files, and know where they are, you
   can install them using dpkg:

    sudo dpkg -i gcc-3.4-base_3.4.4-6ubuntu8_i386.deb
    sudo dpkg -i cpp-3.4_3.4.4-6ubuntu8_i386.deb
    sudo dpkg -i gcc-3.4_3.4.4-6ubuntu8_i386.deb

   The order is important.

Get the driver itself


   Download the drivers for the modem here:

   [image: [WWW]]*&lang=eng<*&lang=eng>

   This link is to version 4.71 of the driver, which at the time of
   writing (16 October 2005) is the latest version. Unlike 4.69.1 version
   discussed in the previous revision of this wiki page, no patching is

   Make sure you know where you've saved this file, which is named
   Intel-536EP-4.71.tgz; for the purposes of this document it will be
   assumed that it is in your home directory (which is /home/<username>, where
   <username> is your username).

Compiling the driver


   First we need to uncompress the downloaded file. Start a terminal
   window and run the following command:

    tar xzf Intel-536EP-4.71.tgz

   This assumes you saved the file downloaded from Intel in your home
   directory; otherwise, type cd <directory-where-the-file-is> before
   typing the tar command above.

   This will create a directory Intel-536 with the source contained in
   it. Change to this directory by typing

    cd Intel-536

   Still in the terminal window, type the following:

    make clean

   This should produce output looking like this:

    Try `uname --help' for more information.
    cd coredrv; make clean
    make[1]: Entering directory `/home/rory/Intel-536/coredrv'
    rm -f *.ko *.o *~ core
    make[1]: Leaving directory `/home/rory/Intel-536/coredrv'
    rm -f *.o *.ko

   Now type

    make 536

   This will result in many lines of output being printed to the terminal
   window; you can ignore most of them. The final lines should look like this:

      CC      /home/rory/Intel-536/coredrv/Intel536.mod.o
      LD [M]  /home/rory/Intel-536/coredrv/Intel536.ko
    make[2]: Leaving directory `/usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.12-9-386'
    make[1]: Leaving directory `/home/rory/Intel-536/coredrv'

   There should be an Intel536.ko file in the directory now; test this by
   typing ls -l Intel536.ko; the output should look like

    -rw-r--r--  1 rory rory 1070520 2005-10-16 21:02 Intel536.ko

   Your dates and times will be different. If you are using Breezy, the
   file size (1070520) should be the same.

Installing the driver


   There are two steps to installing the driver. The first is to copy the
   Intel536.ko file created above to an appropriate directory, and the
   second is to cause the driver to be loaded at boot time.

   *Installing the Intel536.ko file*

   Copy the file to the modules directory by this command:

    sudo cp Intel536.ko /lib/modules/$(uname -r)/kernel/drivers/char

   You may be prompted for a password; if so, enter your user password.

   Make your system aware of this module with depmod:

    sudo depmod -a

   Finally, load the driver with the modprobe command:

    sudo modprobe Intel536

   This command should not print a response; if it prints something like

    FATAL: Module Intel536 not found.

   you have made an error; most likely you have copied the file to the
   wrong place. If you see a different error message, there may be an error in
   the module, or your modem, or you may not have a Intel 536-based modem.

   *Loading the driver at boot time*

   To load the module at boot time, we need to add a line "Intel536" to
   the file /etc/modules. First make a backup of the file:

    sudo cp /etc/modules /etc/modules.backup

   Now add the required line as follows:

    sudo sh -c "echo Intel536 >> /etc/modules"

Using the modem


   The name of your modem device is /dev/536ep0. You can now use

sudo pppconfig to set up pon & poff. To use Kppp you will need to create a
symlink be able to link the /dev/536ep0 to /dev/modem. Udev rewrites the
/dev on each reboot and you thus have to create a file /etc/udev/rules.d/10-
local.rules using kppp or kate or gedit and put the following lines in it:


    # Intelmodem536ep
    KERNEL="536ep0" SYMLINK="modem"

Now reboot and you can use Kppp to query the modem as this is a quick check
if all is well before dialling out. Configure KPP for your ISP connection.
These Intel modems are found to be more stable and less finicky that the
Smartlink types on Breezy.

On 9/27/06, nodata <ubuntu at> wrote:
> Sorry, my reply was correct (that's how you create a symlink), but it
> was the wrong way to do it.
> Your documentation says that udev will create a symlink for you:
> > > thus have to create a new file with
> > > kwrite, kate or gedit in /etc/udev/rules.d/10- local.rules and put the
> > > following lines in it:
> > > # Intelmodem536ep
> > > KERNEL="536ep0"' SYMLINK="modem"
> --
> ubuntu-users mailing list
> ubuntu-users at
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