[ubuntu-za] Problems with fstab

Bill Cairns cairnsww at gmail.com
Tue Jun 16 14:51:40 UTC 2020


Thanks for your reply Frans,

I did a file check - no problems found.
I did a reformat when I re-installed - although to be honest I am not sure
on which partitions!
I used the installer to resize my partitions. I think that is a version of
gparted?

How do I go about doing a boot repair? Should I use the utility boot
repairer  (There is a good write up at
https://www.fosslinux.com/1521/boot-repair-for-ubuntu-linux-mint-and-elementary-os-can-fix-bootloader-issues.htm.)
Can I just install that on my system (it's running well after all) and
write in to sdb1? Must I use gparted first to set the boot flag?

We seem to be running into dangerous territory here so I would like to be
careful. I do have backups but I know that it is easy to forget something.

Bill

On Mon, 15 Jun 2020 at 21:17, Frans de waal <meesterarend at gmail.com> wrote:

> Boot option 1 defenitely is the hdd, wich you want to mount as /home.
> Usually also listed as sda1... Therefore the uid identifiers for the
> partitions...
>
> I'm thinking maybe boot from a live disk and check the files on each disk.
>
>  Whenever I reinstall for what ever reason, I clean all but the home
> folder on the disk and keep only what I need there.
> You can also use gparted to set the boot flag and resize partitions as
> needed.
>
> Anyway the best would be to backup all data you need, before doing too
> much...
>
> I've also seen the boot repair option on  the current beta version linux
> mint cinnamon disk, wich is also an option to help fix boot problems.
>
>
> On Mon, 15 Jun 2020, 20:15 Bill Cairns <cairnsww at gmail.com> wrote:
>
>> Sorry - that question came out backwards. I mean how can I get the right
>> boot program onto the SSD disk for BIOS.
>>
>> On Mon, 15 Jun 2020 at 16:49, Bill Cairns <cairnsww at gmail.com> wrote:
>>
>>> Hello Bruce and others,
>>>
>>> Thanks for your responses so far. I suspect that Bruce is pointing me in
>>> the right direction. After the install, I had a lot of trouble getting the
>>> machine to boot. I am not sure how to relate the disks described by the
>>> BIOS setup to the disks that I have partitioned.
>>>
>>> I have Gigabyte UEFI DualBios 2011.
>>>
>>> My boot option 1 is 'SATA PM: ST31000524AS'
>>> (This works)
>>> Boot option 2 is 'SATA PM: ATAPI iHAS122 C'
>>> (When I select this, it just sits there spinning a little wheel at me.)
>>> Boot option 3 is 'Realtex PXE B03 D00' (I understand that has something
>>> to do with 'boot from LAN?)
>>>
>>> My other options would be:
>>> 'ubuntu'
>>> (The same wheel spinning)
>>> 'UEFI TEAM5Lite3D120G' (Which I presume is the SSD?)
>>> (When I select this, I get 'Media test failure, check cable
>>> Reboot and select proper Boot device.)
>>>
>>> You (Bruce) say: 'I think you might be booting from /dev/sda1 in MBR
>>> mode which has it's own /etc/fstab and is trying to mount a non
>>> existent/faulty root partition. The emergency error normally comes from
>>> /boot/initrd.img (InitRAMFS) if it is unable to hand off to the init system
>>> on disk (systemd).'
>>>
>>> But it does mount and run the correct root partition. It goes wrong when
>>> fstab tells it to mount /home.
>>>
>>> How do I go about getting bios loaded onto the SSD?
>>>
>>> Thanks for the help so far. I am learning a lot even if I am not fixing
>>> the problem.
>>>
>>> BIll
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> On Mon, 15 Jun 2020 at 16:11, Bill Cairns <cairnsww at gmail.com> wrote:
>>>
>>>> Thanks Bruce - I need to reboot to have a look at that and will come
>>>> back on my other machine.
>>>>
>>>> On Mon, 15 Jun 2020 at 15:57, Bruce Pieterse <dev at santura.co.za> wrote:
>>>>
>>>>> Hi Bill,
>>>>>
>>>>> Thanks, just wanted to make sure the obvious was covered. I think
>>>>> Wesley and Frans was on to something earlier.
>>>>>
>>>>> Three things I want to mention:
>>>>>
>>>>> 1. As mentioned by Wesley earlier in the thread, please make sure the
>>>>> BIOS is using the SSD root filesystem when booting (/dev/sdb1) and is set
>>>>> to UEFI mode. Generally this is marked as UEFI: ubuntu in the BIOS but can
>>>>> possibly vary depending on the BIOS. I think you might be booting from
>>>>> /dev/sda1 in MBR mode which has it's own /etc/fstab and is trying to mount
>>>>> a non existent/faulty root partition. The emergency error normally comes
>>>>> from /boot/initrd.img (InitRAMFS) if it is unable to hand off to the init
>>>>> system on disk (systemd).
>>>>> 2. You have a swap partition with UUID
>>>>> 1c5e43a0-097c-4d68-90df-e544497323dd enabled in /etc/fstab, but that
>>>>> partition doesn't exist in the output of *sudo blkid*. You can
>>>>> comment that line out for now. You can use a swap file instead and can be
>>>>> setup after you get this fixed.
>>>>> 3. The entry in /etc/fstab is correct, but I think the problem is
>>>>> point 1.
>>>>>
>>>>> Best approach is to completely, disconnect the the old hard drive and
>>>>> only have the SSD in and then setup the BIOS correctly, then reboot into
>>>>> Ubuntu. If everything is OK, shut-down, reconnect your old hard drive and
>>>>> boot up again.
>>>>>
>>>>> Absolutely last resort or another alternative is to rsync your /home
>>>>> directory from /dev/sda6 to another disk (rsync -avu /mnt/old-home/
>>>>> /mnt/tmp-home), format /dev/sda with just 1 ext4 partition, mount it, then
>>>>> rsync the contents back to the drive. This will ensure that this is no MBR
>>>>> on /dev/sda and is only used for /home.
>>>>>
>>>>> Let us know how it goes.
>>>>>
>>>>> On Mon, 2020-06-15 at 12:51 +0200, Bill Cairns wrote:
>>>>>
>>>>> Hi Bruce,
>>>>>
>>>>> I got 'command udo not found' until I copied it right!
>>>>>
>>>>> Here you are:
>>>>> /dev/sdb2: UUID="2e740efb-b15b-4bea-9ef8-a20dd7a87186" TYPE="ext4"
>>>>> PARTUUID="2d6e92df-4f61-489d-b490-b7494b2dac37"
>>>>> /dev/sda1: UUID="ea22080c-4fda-44a2-9823-b51cef829ada" TYPE="ext4"
>>>>> PARTUUID="00023991-01"
>>>>> /dev/sda6: UUID="b7092661-c008-4beb-9cdc-06c3dd036181" TYPE="ext4"
>>>>> PARTUUID="00023991-06"
>>>>> /dev/sdb1: UUID="B9BC-946C" TYPE="vfat" PARTLABEL="EFI System
>>>>> Partition" PARTUUID="26461b51-7dde-415d-bc0b-f8c93d1606a7"
>>>>> /dev/sdc1: LABEL="Transcend" UUID="60CC093DCC090F4A" TYPE="ntfs"
>>>>> PARTUUID="f2d4863e-01"
>>>>>
>>>>> Regards,
>>>>>   Bill
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> On Mon, 15 Jun 2020 at 11:06, Bruce Pieterse <dev at santura.co.za>
>>>>> wrote:
>>>>>
>>>>> Hi Bill,
>>>>>
>>>>> Please can you provide the output of *sudo blkid | grep
>>>>> "ext\|vfat\|ntfs" * to get a better understanding of your disks and
>>>>> partitions.
>>>>>
>>>>> Thanks
>>>>>
>>>>> On Mon, 2020-06-15 at 09:42 +0200, Bill Cairns wrote:
>>>>>
>>>>> Hi Wesley,
>>>>>
>>>>> Thanks for your reply.
>>>>>
>>>>> I hope that I am talking sense here. (I am sometimes not sure that I
>>>>> am using the right terminology.) Going back in time, I started with only
>>>>> the hard disk which is now sda. I had boot, the OS, and everything else on
>>>>> it. Then after a couple of years I added the ssd - now sba. Now I have
>>>>> installed the OS on the ssd, but I still boot from my hard drive. (That is,
>>>>> when I did the install, I specified '/' as being on sb2.) It seems to work
>>>>> very well except for this problem of not being able to use fstab to specify
>>>>> where /home is.
>>>>>
>>>>> At the moment, I am manually mounting /home after startup. Again, it
>>>>> all works well except that I have two /home directories - one on the ssd
>>>>> and the one that I use.
>>>>>
>>>>> Bill
>>>>>
>>>>> On Mon, 15 Jun 2020 at 02:17, Wesley Werner <wesley.werner at gmail.com>
>>>>> wrote:
>>>>>
>>>>> Hi Bill
>>>>>
>>>>> You said the boot drive is sda1, but your SSD disk lists as sdb2
>>>>> (UUID=2e740efb). Perhaps the BIOS is booting the wrong drive?
>>>>>
>>>>> --
>>>>> Regards
>>>>> Wesley Werner
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> On Mon, Jun 15, 2020 at 1:03 AM Bill Cairns <cairnsww at gmail.com>
>>>>> wrote:
>>>>>
>>>>> I tried looking at the drive before mounting it as /home and this is
>>>>> what it looks like with mount -v (I asked nautilus to mount the '960 Gb
>>>>> drive')
>>>>> /dev/sda6 on /media/bill/b7092661-c008-4beb-9cdc-06c3dd036181 type
>>>>> ext4 (rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime,uhelper=udisks2)
>>>>>
>>>>> I can access it quite happily that way too.
>>>>>
>>>>> On Sun, 14 Jun 2020 at 16:19, Bill Cairns <cairnsww at gmail.com> wrote:
>>>>>
>>>>> Thanks for your reply Paolo. I confess that I am not quite sure what I
>>>>> should be looking for. The mount -v gives me:
>>>>> /dev/sda6 on /home type ext4 (rw,relatime)
>>>>> While /proc/mounts has
>>>>> /dev/sda6 /home ext4 rw,relatime 0 0
>>>>>
>>>>> That would seem the same, but I am not sure I am looking at the right
>>>>> things.
>>>>>
>>>>> This is the ssd with the OS from mount -v:
>>>>> /dev/sdb2 on / type ext4 (rw,noatime,errors=remount-ro)
>>>>> and from /proc/mounts:
>>>>> /dev/sdb2 / ext4 rw,noatime,errors=remount-ro 0 0
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> On Sat, 13 Jun 2020 at 22:34, Paolo Gigante <
>>>>> paolo.gigante.sa at gmail.com> wrote:
>>>>>
>>>>> Not that it should cause a crash but are you sure its an ext4
>>>>> filesystem on that device?
>>>>> If the mount command works, you may want to try 'mount -v' to see what
>>>>> mount is actually doing. Once you have used the mount command to attach the
>>>>> FS, does the entry look like in /proc/mounts
>>>>>
>>>>> On Sat, Jun 13, 2020 at 2:38 PM Bill Cairns <cairnsww at gmail.com>
>>>>> wrote:
>>>>>
>>>>> Boot is on the hard drive - sda1
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> On Sat, 13 Jun 2020 at 15:30, Frans de waal <meesterarend at gmail.com>
>>>>> wrote:
>>>>>
>>>>> Just a thought... What is the boot drive in the bios?
>>>>>
>>>>> On Sat, 13 Jun 2020 at 15:10, Bill Cairns <cairnsww at gmail.com> wrote:
>>>>>
>>>>> Hello everybody,
>>>>>
>>>>> I am trying to run 20.04 with my OS on an SSD device and my home
>>>>> directory on my old hard drive.
>>>>>
>>>>> This mount command works perfectly:
>>>>> sudo mount UUID=b7092661-c008-4beb-9cdc-06c3dd036181 /home
>>>>>
>>>>> However, when I try to do the same thing in fstab -
>>>>> # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
>>>>> #
>>>>> # Use 'blkid' to print the universally unique identifier for a
>>>>> # device; this may be used with UUID= as a more robust way to name
>>>>> devices
>>>>> # that works even if disks are added and removed. See fstab(5).
>>>>> #
>>>>> # <file system> <mount point>   <type>  <options>       <dump>  <pass>
>>>>> # / was on /dev/sdb2 during installation
>>>>> UUID=2e740efb-b15b-4bea-9ef8-a20dd7a87186 /         ext4
>>>>>  noatime,errors=remount-ro 0       1
>>>>> # swap was on /dev/sda5 during installation
>>>>> UUID=1c5e43a0-097c-4d68-90df-e544497323dd none            swap    sw
>>>>>            0       0
>>>>> #
>>>>> # Home is on sda6. Added 2020-06-13
>>>>> #
>>>>> UUID=b7092661-c008-4beb-9cdc-06c3dd036181 /home ext4
>>>>> nodev,nosuid,relatime  0  2
>>>>>
>>>>> The system crashes rather badly and says 'You are now in emergency
>>>>> mode' or something equivalent. (And I have no idea how to do anything in
>>>>> emergency mode!)
>>>>>
>>>>> I have used the example in https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Fstab
>>>>> (changing the UUID of course).
>>>>>
>>>>> I am sure that I am missing something very simple. Can anyone help
>>>>> please?
>>>>>
>>>>> Thanks, keep safe,
>>>>>
>>>>> Bill
>>>>>
>>>>> --
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