Securely downloading Ubuntu

Matt Zimmerman mdz at
Tue Jan 29 09:57:55 GMT 2008

On Mon, Jan 28, 2008 at 10:39:03AM -0700, Neal McBurnett wrote:
> On Mon, Jan 28, 2008 at 05:20:52PM +0000, Matt Zimmerman wrote:
> > On Mon, Jan 28, 2008 at 09:28:48AM -0700, Neal McBurnett wrote:
> > > > (I'm all in favor of moving to SHA256 or whatever is considered best
> > > > practice these days. I've just not heard that MD5 is really as broken as
> > > > I think Chris suggests here.)
> > > 
> > > One easy thing to do is to also publish sha256 sums of the CD
> > > images, so if MD5 preimage attacks are developed, that would help.
> > > 
> > > I think we should do that now, and consider a hash function in a
> > > different class also (whirlpool?).
> > > 
> > > Shipping more hash functions in the base install would help a lot in a
> > > crisis, so users have what they need to validate software updates.
> > > I guess coreutils has the md5 and sha families well covered, but
> > > again, something different like whirlpool could help a lot some day.
> > 
> > Perhaps we should publish detached signatures for each ISO rather than
> > signing MD5SUMS?
> From what I've heard, the main principle for dealing with hash issues
> is "algorithm agility" - i.e. making it easy for folks to use multiple
> algorithms.
> Publishing detached signatures is a way to make the user interface
> easier (perhaps) for folks that want to validate the gpg signature.
> But I would think many (especially those without a good way to trust
> the gpg key, as noted previously) would want to just be able to
> validate hashes.
> I would still argue for the use of multiple hash algorithms, and I
> guess for gpg that means multiple detached signatures, one per hash
> algorithm.  And some are not supported by all versions of gpg....
> I'd suggest we publish a "CHECKSUMS" file with a good assortment of
> hashes in text format, and also sign that.

There are two reasons for checking the hashes:

Authentication - the downloaded image is in fact the official one provided
by the Ubuntu project, unaltered

Integrity - the downloaded image hasn't been randomly corrupted in transit

(it happens that verifying authenticity ensures integrity as a side effect)

Authentication, I believe, would be better served by signing the image
directly.  This both avoids an attack on the intervening checksums in
MD5SUMS and provides a cryptographically stronger check.  I believe the .gpg
format already supports multiple signatures with different algorithms, so
this would be reasonably future-proof.

Integrity is served well enough by the existing MD5 hashes, which are still
extremely robust against unintentional corruption.

The above is based on only a very basic understanding of cryptography,
however, so corrections are welcome from folks with more experience in this

 - mdz

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