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Ray Burke rayburke30 at
Tue Jan 6 19:38:56 UTC 2009

Constantinos Maltezos kirjutas,
That seems alot of mucking around just to fix a problem with my brother printer, as Japan
solution center mainly operate on windows, I dont think theyt understand about re-install,
so there must be a better way????????? to fix the printer to work???????
ray> Date: Tue, 6 Jan 2009 09:37:51 +0200> From: ed.lau at> To: kubuntu-users at> Subject: Re: > > Constantinos Maltezos kirjutas:> > On Monday 05 January 2009 11:08:48 pm Ray Burke wrote:> >> Have been advised by the japan solution center that I must re-install> >> Kubuntu to overcome problem, but dont want to loose any data, and we have> >> gone thru all that is shown in this link many times before?????> > > > What in the world reinstalling your operating system will do to make your > > printer work is beyond me - this isn't Windows. If you do it, don't be > > surprised if you feel you've wasted your time. I could be wrong, of course.> > > > Here's the problem, if there is a real thing that reinstalling Kubuntu would > > do for you, it most likely needs a full, fresh install. This means that if > > you want to keep your data, you'll have to back it up. This might be as easy > > as getting a small thumb drive and copying your documents directory to it (if > > you have no large collection of videos or music files) and might go as far as > > to require creating a backup partition (if you have disk space) to move your > > stuff to while you reinstall.> > If you don't have enough wide e-mail reading window or program - copy the following text into some > text editor, e.g. Kate or gEdit (whatever you use) and the you'll see following tables correctly.> > I suggest to create following partitions:> > mount point filesystem device> *********** ********** ******> 1) swap swap /dev/sda1 - primary> 2) /boot ext3 /dev/sda2 - primary> 3) /tmp ext3 /dev/sda3 - primary> /dev/sda4 - extended partition> 4) /var ext3 /dev/sda5 - logical> 5) / ext3 /dev/sda6 - logical> 6) /home ext3 /dev/sda7 - logical> 7) /data ext3 /dev/sda8 - logical> > Swap and /boot should be in the beginning of HDD to boot and swap fast. Also /tmp and /var have > fastly changing data and are therefore before other partitions.> > If you have also dual boot with Windows, then:> > mount point in Windows filesystem device> *********** ********** ********** ******> 1) /mnt/ntfs-system C: NTFS /dev/sda1 - Windows system> 2) /mnt/ntfs-data D: NTFS /dev/sda2 - data> 3) /mnt/ntfs-swap E: NTFS /dev/sda3 - Windows swap (pagefile.sys)> /dev/sda4 - extended partition> 4) swap swap /dev/sda5 - logical> 5) /boot ext3 /dev/sda6 - logical> 6) /tmp ext3 /dev/sda7 - logical> 7) /var ext3 /dev/sda8 - logical> 8) / ext3 /dev/sda9 - logical> 9) /home ext3 /dev/sda10 - logical> 10) /data ext3 /dev/sda11 - logical> > If you created the user in Linux, e.g. named it "john", then also group will be the same as > username. Then write:> sudo chown -R john:john /data> ... and press enter> > After entering the user john's password, the folder belongs to user john.> > Then create symlink:> ln -s /data /home/john/data> > Then you see the folder "data" in user home directory, which is actually symlink. Save all your > important data there.> > Another option is to create e.g. the folder /data/homes and user folder inside it:> sudo mkdir /data/homes /data/homes/john> sudo chown -R john:john /data> > Then move all your data folders into it and create symlinks to user's home:> mv /home/john/Desktop /data/homes/john/Desktop && ln -s /data/homes/john/Desktop /home/john/Desktop> mv /home/john/Public /data/homes/john/Public && ln -s /data/homes/john/Public /home/john/Public> mv /home/john/Documents /data/homes/john/Documents && ln -s /data/homes/john/Documents > /home/john/Documents> mv /home/john/Music /data/homes/john/Music && ln -s /data/homes/john/Music /home/john/Music> mv /home/john/Pictures /data/homes/john/Pictures && ln -s /data/homes/john/Pictures /home/john/Pictures> mv /home/john/Videos /data/homes/john/Videos && ln -s /data/homes/john/Videos /home/john/Videos> > If you have any other folders, what data you would like to keep - move and create symlinks to them.> > swap could be usualy 2xRAM but if you already have e.g. 2GB RAM, then there is not necessary to > create 4GB swap partition - it's enough if there is 1GB. Normally swap is not used and if it's > heavily used then there is better to add RAM instead of increasing swap partition. RAM is ~20 times > faster than HDD and your computer isn't slow if you have enough RAM.> > /boot could be have 100MB but now are big HDD-s and I give 1GB for /boot to be sure there are enough > room for kernel upgrades.> > /tmp is for temporary files and could be also 1GB if there is not very big HDD but if possible, I > give 3GB or even 5GB> > /var should be 3GB...5GB but if you use also e.g. web server etc. what keep their data in /var - you > could create it larger, e.g. 10GB...15GB. But also you can link e.g. /var/www to /data/www and then > you don't need to have too large /var. You can also use Apache aliases to mount any folder into > Apache tree - - look the right manual according your > Apache's version.> > / is the root and there goes system - there should be at least 5GB, I give 10..15GB usually - > depends, how big the whole HDD is. If there is 500GB HDD, the / could be also 20...30GB. Then you > can install software and don't need to worry - does there enough space. I also try to promote Linux > as playing environment and games taking usually some gigabytes. Also CAD/CAM, graphics software etc.> > /home should be at least 5GB but I give usually 10GB if possible> > /data should have the rest of HDD's space and therefore the biggest partition. I mean, if you have > e.g. 500GB HDD, then it could be more than 400GB large. Certainly, if you have another operating > system laying on HDD e.g. Windows, then this space could be also smaller but anyway - you have to > decide, how much you use each operating system and what purposes and then decide, where to leave > more space.> > I e.g. use a lot of virtual machines for testing, teaching, developing, publishing, tech support etc > purposes, therefore I need at least 2GB, better 4GB RAM and at least 320GB, better 500G HDD. If you > have also e.g. TV-card and you'll save TV-shows onto HDD - then that /data partition have to be > enough large to handle all that data.> > > > Then if you save anything into those symlinked folders - they are going straight to that /data > partition and you don't need to worry about reinstalling whole operating system cleanly or > overinstalling. If you have any other configuration file or folder - just create the folder > /data/backup and create symlink to your home directory or where you want if you want.> > Certainly - if you are the only one user in that PC - you can just move those folders directly to > the /data, I mean e.g. /data/Documents etc. If you need later to create additional user(s), then you > can just leave them to the /home partition of if they have any backupable data, then just create > e.g. /data/backup/mary and create symlink to Mary's home folder:> sudo ln -s /data/backup/mary /home/mary/backup and say, that everything what is important to save > there. Or just create /data/backup/mary/documents, delete the old one if it's empty (I assume you > just created the user mary and this folder should be empty) sudo rm -fr /home/mary/Documents) and > symlink:> sudo ln -s /data/backup/mary/documents /home/mary/Documents> > As you see - there can be many policies, how to organize your and other users data folders to keep > them backuped onto another partition - each person has to choose what is best for hime/her.> > Then if you do fresh or reinstall - just don't touch that /data partition and certainly you have to > remember, what device it was and also exact size of partition if device names will somehow change to > identify later that data partition in somewhere installation process if needed.> > Certainly, you have to define right mount points during install but not to format them! Just like > the NTFS partitions of Windows (if you have) - just mount points but not to format.> > Then after install just change the owner (sudo chown <user>:<group> /data) and create appopriate > symlinks and that's it!> > Why not whole /home? Because usually if to do clean install, the /home contains also old > configuration files and it's not comfortable to create after install new user or delete old user's > conf etc. Much more faster is to keep data on another partition, which has enough space and write > data to there, e.g. using symlinks to make your life more comfortable under Linux.> > I hope, that it was clear and helps you keep further actions and work smoother and more flexible.> > Best Regards,> Edmund Laugasson> > -- > kubuntu-users mailing list> kubuntu-users at> Modify settings or unsubscribe at:
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