ed.lau at mail.ee
Tue Jan 6 07:37:51 UTC 2009
Constantinos Maltezos kirjutas:
> On Monday 05 January 2009 11:08:48 pm Ray Burke wrote:
>> Have been advised by the japan solution center that I must re-install
>> Kubuntu to overcome problem, but dont want to loose any data, and we have
>> gone thru all that is shown in this link many times before?????
> What in the world reinstalling your operating system will do to make your
> printer work is beyond me - this isn't Windows. If you do it, don't be
> surprised if you feel you've wasted your time. I could be wrong, of course.
> Here's the problem, if there is a real thing that reinstalling Kubuntu would
> do for you, it most likely needs a full, fresh install. This means that if
> you want to keep your data, you'll have to back it up. This might be as easy
> as getting a small thumb drive and copying your documents directory to it (if
> you have no large collection of videos or music files) and might go as far as
> to require creating a backup partition (if you have disk space) to move your
> stuff to while you reinstall.
If you don't have enough wide e-mail reading window or program - copy the following text into some
text editor, e.g. Kate or gEdit (whatever you use) and the you'll see following tables correctly.
I suggest to create following partitions:
mount point filesystem device
*********** ********** ******
1) swap swap /dev/sda1 - primary
2) /boot ext3 /dev/sda2 - primary
3) /tmp ext3 /dev/sda3 - primary
/dev/sda4 - extended partition
4) /var ext3 /dev/sda5 - logical
5) / ext3 /dev/sda6 - logical
6) /home ext3 /dev/sda7 - logical
7) /data ext3 /dev/sda8 - logical
Swap and /boot should be in the beginning of HDD to boot and swap fast. Also /tmp and /var have
fastly changing data and are therefore before other partitions.
If you have also dual boot with Windows, then:
mount point in Windows filesystem device
*********** ********** ********** ******
1) /mnt/ntfs-system C: NTFS /dev/sda1 - Windows system
2) /mnt/ntfs-data D: NTFS /dev/sda2 - data
3) /mnt/ntfs-swap E: NTFS /dev/sda3 - Windows swap (pagefile.sys)
/dev/sda4 - extended partition
4) swap swap /dev/sda5 - logical
5) /boot ext3 /dev/sda6 - logical
6) /tmp ext3 /dev/sda7 - logical
7) /var ext3 /dev/sda8 - logical
8) / ext3 /dev/sda9 - logical
9) /home ext3 /dev/sda10 - logical
10) /data ext3 /dev/sda11 - logical
If you created the user in Linux, e.g. named it "john", then also group will be the same as
username. Then write:
sudo chown -R john:john /data
... and press enter
After entering the user john's password, the folder belongs to user john.
Then create symlink:
ln -s /data /home/john/data
Then you see the folder "data" in user home directory, which is actually symlink. Save all your
important data there.
Another option is to create e.g. the folder /data/homes and user folder inside it:
sudo mkdir /data/homes /data/homes/john
sudo chown -R john:john /data
Then move all your data folders into it and create symlinks to user's home:
mv /home/john/Desktop /data/homes/john/Desktop && ln -s /data/homes/john/Desktop /home/john/Desktop
mv /home/john/Public /data/homes/john/Public && ln -s /data/homes/john/Public /home/john/Public
mv /home/john/Documents /data/homes/john/Documents && ln -s /data/homes/john/Documents
mv /home/john/Music /data/homes/john/Music && ln -s /data/homes/john/Music /home/john/Music
mv /home/john/Pictures /data/homes/john/Pictures && ln -s /data/homes/john/Pictures /home/john/Pictures
mv /home/john/Videos /data/homes/john/Videos && ln -s /data/homes/john/Videos /home/john/Videos
If you have any other folders, what data you would like to keep - move and create symlinks to them.
swap could be usualy 2xRAM but if you already have e.g. 2GB RAM, then there is not necessary to
create 4GB swap partition - it's enough if there is 1GB. Normally swap is not used and if it's
heavily used then there is better to add RAM instead of increasing swap partition. RAM is ~20 times
faster than HDD and your computer isn't slow if you have enough RAM.
/boot could be have 100MB but now are big HDD-s and I give 1GB for /boot to be sure there are enough
room for kernel upgrades.
/tmp is for temporary files and could be also 1GB if there is not very big HDD but if possible, I
give 3GB or even 5GB
/var should be 3GB...5GB but if you use also e.g. web server etc. what keep their data in /var - you
could create it larger, e.g. 10GB...15GB. But also you can link e.g. /var/www to /data/www and then
you don't need to have too large /var. You can also use Apache aliases to mount any folder into
Apache tree - http://www.google.com/search?q=apache+alias - look the right manual according your
/ is the root and there goes system - there should be at least 5GB, I give 10..15GB usually -
depends, how big the whole HDD is. If there is 500GB HDD, the / could be also 20...30GB. Then you
can install software and don't need to worry - does there enough space. I also try to promote Linux
as playing environment and games taking usually some gigabytes. Also CAD/CAM, graphics software etc.
/home should be at least 5GB but I give usually 10GB if possible
/data should have the rest of HDD's space and therefore the biggest partition. I mean, if you have
e.g. 500GB HDD, then it could be more than 400GB large. Certainly, if you have another operating
system laying on HDD e.g. Windows, then this space could be also smaller but anyway - you have to
decide, how much you use each operating system and what purposes and then decide, where to leave
I e.g. use a lot of virtual machines for testing, teaching, developing, publishing, tech support etc
purposes, therefore I need at least 2GB, better 4GB RAM and at least 320GB, better 500G HDD. If you
have also e.g. TV-card and you'll save TV-shows onto HDD - then that /data partition have to be
enough large to handle all that data.
Then if you save anything into those symlinked folders - they are going straight to that /data
partition and you don't need to worry about reinstalling whole operating system cleanly or
overinstalling. If you have any other configuration file or folder - just create the folder
/data/backup and create symlink to your home directory or where you want if you want.
Certainly - if you are the only one user in that PC - you can just move those folders directly to
the /data, I mean e.g. /data/Documents etc. If you need later to create additional user(s), then you
can just leave them to the /home partition of if they have any backupable data, then just create
e.g. /data/backup/mary and create symlink to Mary's home folder:
sudo ln -s /data/backup/mary /home/mary/backup and say, that everything what is important to save
there. Or just create /data/backup/mary/documents, delete the old one if it's empty (I assume you
just created the user mary and this folder should be empty) sudo rm -fr /home/mary/Documents) and
sudo ln -s /data/backup/mary/documents /home/mary/Documents
As you see - there can be many policies, how to organize your and other users data folders to keep
them backuped onto another partition - each person has to choose what is best for hime/her.
Then if you do fresh or reinstall - just don't touch that /data partition and certainly you have to
remember, what device it was and also exact size of partition if device names will somehow change to
identify later that data partition in somewhere installation process if needed.
Certainly, you have to define right mount points during install but not to format them! Just like
the NTFS partitions of Windows (if you have) - just mount points but not to format.
Then after install just change the owner (sudo chown <user>:<group> /data) and create appopriate
symlinks and that's it!
Why not whole /home? Because usually if to do clean install, the /home contains also old
configuration files and it's not comfortable to create after install new user or delete old user's
conf etc. Much more faster is to keep data on another partition, which has enough space and write
data to there, e.g. using symlinks to make your life more comfortable under Linux.
I hope, that it was clear and helps you keep further actions and work smoother and more flexible.
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